The Rise and the Fall of the Ottomans

Image Source: Milli Chronicles

The Ottoman Empire, which was founded in 1299 AD, is one of history’s largest empires.The Ottoman Empire covered a dynasty that lasted 600 years. The Ottomans ruled over large parts of three continents, including the Middle East, Eastern Europe, and North Africa.The Ottoman Empire is remembered for its ethnic diversity, powerful military, art, and architecture. The Ottoman Empire officially ended in 1922 AD, following their defeat in World War I.

ORIGIN

Mongols destroyed the Seljuq dynasty of Rum around 1300 AD. After this, Anatolia was divided into various small Turkish territories. Osman Ghazi was the leader of the Turkish Turkish tribes in Anatolia. Osman’s ancestors were Oghuz Turks from the Kayi clan. Osman Ghazi conquered Kalachaisar Castle from the Romans. After this, he conquered the city of Bursa. The dynasty was named after its founder, Osman Ghazi  (1259–1320 AD), who began to expand his kingdom into the eastern empire in Asia minor moving his capital to Bursa in 1326 AD. Osman was a pious man, and at the time of his death, he had nothing in his personal property into various small Turkish territories. Osman Ghazi was the leader of the Turkish tribes in Anatolia. Osman’s ancestors were descendants of the Kayi clan of Oghuz Turks. Osman Ghazi conquered Kalachaisar Castle from the Romans. After this, he conquered the city of Bursa. The dynasty was named after its founder, Osman Ghazi (1259–1320 AD), who began to expand his kingdom into the eastern empire in Asia Minor, moving his capital to Bursa in 1326 AD. Osman was a pious man, and at the time of his death, he had nothing in his personal property except a chain armor and a sword. This is the same sword, which is tied around the waist of every ottoman sultan when they ascend the throne. The Ottoman Empire was ruled by numerous sultans.

SOCIAL STRUCTURE

The   Ottoman   empire   followed   the  system   of  administration created by seljuqs. The civil  system   was   based   on  the  region’s  characteristics.

SULTAN

There  were  a   total  number  of   36   sultans  who  ruled  between   1299-1922   AD. The sultans also took title   Kaiser-e-rum  (ceaser of Rome)  after conquering Constantinople. After defeating the Mamluks and gaining control of Mecca and Medina in  1299-1922 AD. The sultans also took the title “kaiser-e-rum” (ceaser of Rome) after conquering Constantinople. After defeating the Mamluks and gaining control of Mecca and Medina in 1517, the Ottoman Sultan Selim I adopted the title Hadimul-Haremeyn (easer of Rome) after conquering Constantinople. After defeating the Mamluks and gaining control of Mecca and Medina in 1517, the Ottoman sultan Selim I adopted the title Hadimul-Haremeyn (servant of Of   two holy cities). This refers to the ruler taking of 36 sultans who ruled between 1299-1922 AD. The sultans also took the title “kaiser-e-rum” (ceaser of Rome) after conquering Constantinople. After defeating the Mamluks and gaining control of Mecca and Medina in 1517, the Ottoman sultan Selim I adopted the title Hadimul-Haremeyn (servant of two holy cities). This refers to the ruler taking responsibility for of   guarding and maintaining the two holiest mosques in Islam. Masjid al-Haram in Mecca and the Prophet’s mosque in Medina

VIZIER

After the Sultan, the vizier was the second highest authority.In the beginning, there was only the rank of vizier, but later, their number increased, and one of them was elected grand vizier. In the Ottoman Empire, many names are included in the rank of grand vizier, whose services are incomparably forgotten in the Ottoman Empire. He was considered the second-most powerful person after the sultan.

HAREM

The combined households of the Queen, the Sultan’s daughter, and the Sultan’s favorite have been housed in the imperial harem. It also contained all concubines. The royal harem had an important position in the Ottoman court. There were certain positions in the harem. The position of valide sultan (Queen Mother) was the most powerful in the harem. The title was officially given first to Hafsa Sultan, the mother of Suleiman the Magnificent.

RELIGION

The Ottoman Empire was an Islamic caliphate. It also contained Christians, Jews, and other religious minorities. Islamic knowledge was taught in schools. When Mehmet II conquered Constantinople, he called “the Great Bishop of Constantinople” into his service and told him the good news that he would continue to be the presiding priest of the church.

PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT

The Ottoman Empire was divided into provinces called eyalets. The eyalets were basically administrative units of the empire. The eyalets were subdivided into districts called sanjaks. Sanjaks    were    governed  by    sanjakbeys.  The governors of each province were overseen by the central government.

MILITARY

During its time period, the ottoman empire had one of the most powerful militaries. They made a strong  army. Orhan I organized a standing army. During its time period, the infantry empire had one of the largest militaries. They made a strong army. Orhan I organized a standing army. The infantry were called Yayas, and the cavalry was known as Musellem. Janissaries were members of an elite corps in the standing army of the Ottoman Empire. Murad 1 created this force. In this force, only the people of that area who were conquered by the Ottoman people of that area were recruited. They were not Muslims. Children from that area were taken and given to Turkish families until the age of 8–10 years, where they were taught the Turkish language and Islam. They were known for their skill in using firearms.

The Ottoman Navy was established in the early 14th century. The navy was led by the position of the kapudan pasha (captain pasha or grand admiral). The Ottoman Navy was established in the early 14th century. The navy was led by the position of the kapudan pasha (captain pasha or grand admiral). The conquest of the island of Kalolimno (Imrali 4th century). The navy was led by the position of the kapudan pasha (captain pasha or grand admiral). The conquest of the island of Kalolimno (Imrali Island) in the Sea of Marmara was the first Ottoman naval victory. In 1453 AD, the Ottoman navy participated in the historic conquest of Constantinople.

EXPANSION

The Ottoman Empire ruled different parts of three continents, including large areas of the middle east, north Africa, and eastern Europe. At that time, the route of trade was also between these continents, and it was in the possession of the empire, so they were economically rich. People of every religion lived in the empire.

The capital of Italy at the time was Rome, which served as the ceend, includingnterEmpire.  Roman Empire.It  was   divided    into    two    parts. One was the Eastern Roman Empire, and the other was the Empire.  Roman Empire.The western empire gradually ended, but the eastern empire remained stable, with its capital at Constantinople, now known as Istanbul. But the  tern empire   also started to disintegrate at the end  the capital city ofItaly. It was divided into two parts. One was the Eastern Roman Empire, and the other was the Western Roman Empire.The western empire gradually ended, but the eastern empire remained stable, with its capital at Constantinople, now known as Istanbul. But the Eastern Roman Empire also started to disintegrate at the end of the 13th century. Osman I conquered the major city of Sogut and established it as the first Ottoman capital. Following the death of Osman I, his son, Orhan Ghazi, captured the city of Bursa. Sultan Murad expanded his empire to include Serbia and Bulgaria, and the empire grew even larger as a result. During Bayezid’s reign, there were many battles against Christians, but a threat was coming from the east, and that threat was Timur Lane, who defeated Bayezid in the battle of Ankara on July 20, 1402. The Ottomans tried hard to conquer Constantinople but were unsuccessful. But in 1453 AD, Mehmed completely destroyed the eastern Roman empire, established the Topkapi Palace, and extended his rule to the Crimea. After this, Selim and I conquered Syria and Egypt. His son Suleiman, the magnificent general, captured Hungary, Baghdad, north Africa, and Algeria. During the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the empire reached its pinnacle between 1520 and 1566. Following this, the empire remained stable. At the beginning of the 17th century, the empire contained 32 provinces and numerous vassal states.

DECLINE

After 1827, when the industrial revolution started in Europe, they created a new way to trade. They found new ways to trade with India and China and started trading. As a result, the Ottoman Empire’s economy began to decline steadily. On the other hand, Russia was becoming powerful. The Ottoman Empire was defeated during the Russo-Turkish War, which lasted from 1768 to 1774. On the other hand, the Australian empire was also challenging them. Romania and Bulgaria began to oppose the Ottomans. In 1853, the Crimean War took place, in which France supported the Ottomans. The Ottomans won, but they were becoming economically weak. After 1827, when the industrial revolution started in Europe, they created a new way to trade. They found new ways to trade with India and China and started trading. In this way, the economy of the Ottoman Empire began to decline continuously. On the other hand, Russia was becoming powerful. The Russo-Turkish War lasted from 1768–74, in which the ottoman empire was defeated. On the other hand, the Australian empire was also challenging them. Romania and also Bulgaria started opposing the Ottomans. In 1853, the Crimean War took place, in which France supported the Ottomans. The Ottomans won, but they were becoming economically weak. Now they have started taking loans from England and France. In 1877–1878, Russia attacked the Ottomans and defeated them. Russia   captured   crimea   in   1881   AD. Romania and Bulgaria started opposing the Ottomans. In 1853, the Crimean War took place, in which France supported the Ottomans. In 1912–1913, there were 2 Balkan Wars in which the Ottoman Empire was defeated and its dominance in Europe ended. The Ottoman Empire sided with Germany and Austria in World War I, and they lost the war. and a treaty named the Sever Treaty was signed with them, in which all the winning countries divided the empire among themselves. Following this incident, a sense of nationalism arose in Turkey. Mustafa Kemal Pasha started a war with Armenia, France, Greece, and England in 1920 A.D. for the independence of Turkey, and Mehmet VI was removed from the throne and the power of the Caliph was abolished. In 1923 A.D., he signed the Treaty of Lausanne with England and France. According to the treaty, Turkey will have authority over all that area, but none of the sea routes to the east of Turkey will have authority. On October 29, 1923, Turkey was declared a republic. The 36th and last Ottoman tan, Mehmed VI Vahideddin, was exiled from Turkey with his family after finding new ways to trade with India and China and starting trading. In this way, the economy of the Ottoman Empire began to decline continuously. On the other hand, Russia was becoming powerful. The Russo-Turkish War lasted from 1768–74, in which the ottoman empire was defeated. On the other hand, the Australian empire was also challenging them. Romania and also Bulgaria started opposing the Ottomans. In 1853, the Crimean War took place, in which France supported the Ottomans. The Ottomans won, but they were becoming economically weak. Now they have started taking loans from England and France. In 1877–1878, Russia attacked the Ottomans and defeated them. Russia captured crimea in 1881 AD. Romania and Bulgaria started opposing the Ottomans. In 1853, the Crimean War took place, in which France supported the Ottomans. In 1912–1913, there were 2 Balkan Wars in which the Ottoman Empire was defeated and its dominance in Europe ended. The Ottoman Empire sided with Germany and Austria in World War I, and they lost the war. A treaty named the Sevres was signed with them, in which all the winning countries divided the empire among themselves. After this incident, a feeling of nationalism arose in Turkey. Mustafa Kemal Pasha started a war with Armenia, France, Greece, and England in 1920 A.D. for the independence of Turkey, and Mehmet VI was removed from the throne and the power of the Caliph was abolished. In 1923 A.D., he signed the Treaty of Lausanne with England and France. According to the treaty, Turkey will have authority over all that area, but none of the sea routes to the east of Turkey will have authority. Turkey was declared a republic on October 29, 1923. The 36th and last Ottoman Sultan, Mehmed VI Vahideddin, was exiled from Turkey with his family after the Ottoman Empire was abolished.

 

 

 

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