Isidore Marie Auguste Francois Xavier Comte was a French philosopher and author who developed the theory of positivism. He lived from 19 January 1798 to 5 September 1857. He is frequently considered the very first thinker of science in the modern sense. In fact, Comte coined the word sociology and regarded the discipline as the culminating achievement of the natural sciences.
Comte developed positive philosophy under the influence of the utopian socialist Henri de Saint-Simon in an effort to rectify the social instability generated by the French Revolution, which he believed signified the near transition to a new type of society. He aspired to build a new scientific-based social theory, which he termed “positivism.” He had a significant impact on the philosophy of the 19th century, influencing the work of social theorists such as John Stuart Mill and George Eliot. His notion of Sociologies and social evolutionism paved the way for early social theorists and anthropologists, such as Harriet Martineau and Herbert Spencer, and evolved into the contemporary academic sociology presented by Émile Durkheim as objective and practical social research.
The culmination of Comte’s social theories was his “Religion of Humanity,” which anticipated the emergence of non-theistic religious humanist and secular humanist organisations in the nineteenth century. He may have also coined the term altruism (altruism).
Theory of Positivism in Sociology
Positivism refers to an approach to the study of society that focuses on empirical scientific data, such as controlled experiments and statistics.
The tenet of positivism is that we should not go beyond the limits of what can be observed. To a positivist, science is the most essential path to knowledge, and we should only be concerned with issues that can be tackled through the scientific method.
In light of the fact that reality exists outside and independently of the mind, it may be investigated objectively and as a genuine thing. They believe that the norms of society are composed of social truths that are distinct from and independent of individuals.
Social facts are external factors, such as institutions, standards, and values, that constrain the person.
Sociological positivism asserts that, like the physical world, society operates according to a set of general rules. Positivism is based on the premise that through watching the underlying workings of social life, scientists may produce accurate and consistent knowledge.
Thus, sociological positivists contend that by applying scientific research principles to the study of society, sociologists will be able to propose social change initiatives that will result in a better society.
Positivists think that society can be studied in the same way as the natural world, and that patterns may be noticed and analysed to generate the social facts that govern society.
This strategy is known as inductive reasoning, and it involves gathering information about the environment through observation and measurement. From this data, a theory can be formulated and confirmed by additional research.
Positivists argue that sociology should adhere to the same objective experimental methods as the natural sciences so that research can remain value-free and establish patterns and causes.
Positivists favour quantitative data and should adhere as closely as feasible to the experimental methodology of the natural sciences. This will allow them to identify and measure behavioural patterns, which will lead to the creation of social facts that control society. Using quantitative data, positivists also believe they can determine the causes and effects that determine human behaviour.
How do we interpret Positivism today?
It is believed that positivism encourages placing an undue emphasis on superficial facts, without paying any attention to the underlying mechanisms that cannot be seen, which has resulted in positivism having a relatively minor impact on current sociology. Instead, sociologists acknowledge that the study of culture is complex and requires numerous complex approaches necessary for research. Researchers, by way of illustration, can learn about a different culture by immersing themselves in it through the use of fieldwork. In contrast to Comte, contemporary sociologists do not consider the achievement of a single “correct” picture of society to be the ultimate goal of the social science of sociology.